|The cancer burden is rising globally, exerting significant strain on populations and
health systems at all income levels. In Kenya, cancer is the 3rd leading cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Breast, cervix uteri, oesophagus, prostate and colorectum are the leading types of new
cancer cases in both males and females across all ages, with oesophageal cancer being the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by cervical cancer and then breast cancer. It is sad to note that 70-80% of cancer patients in Kenya are diagnosed at an advanced stage when it is not amenable to cure; this is part of the justification for developing these screening guidelines. These guidelines are meant to standardize cancer screening, provide operational protocols
and improve the outcome of cancer screening and treatment by streaming referral along the levels of care in Kenya.